It’s summertime and we all know what that means: vacations. There are plenty of precautionary measures you can take to ensure your family’s trip goes smoothly and everyone returns home safe and sound.
For a happy, relaxing getaway, follow these tips:
• If you’re flying, allow extra time. Arrive early.
• Be patient as the federalization of security at airports continues.
• Be vigilant for suspicious activity and report it to authorities.
• Keep your baggage with you at all times.
• Review the guidelines for what you can take in your carry-on luggage.
• Bring a government-issued photo ID. If you have photo identification for your children, bring those as well.
• Bring your ticket or a print-out of your itinerary for your E-ticket.
• Prepare your children for the security checkpoints.
• Advise your children that all bags and toys must go through the X-ray machine, and also leave toys at home that could be mistaken for weapons.
• It is recommended that while in line at the checkpoint, you remove your cell phone and pager, take out your keys and change, and put all of them into your carry-on bag. This will save time, once you arrive at the metal detector. If we all do this, it will save time per person and save everyone time waiting in line.
Don’t carry weapons, guns or knives in your carry-on luggage.
Don’t carry prohibited objects like scissors, pocket-knives, mace and corkscrews.
Don’t joke about terrorism, weapons or firearms while in the airports or threaten or appear to threaten passenger screeners. All remarks likely will be taken seriously. This could lead to arrest, fines or, at the very least, missing your flight.
Follow the “dos and don’ts” during air travel, but remember there are still precautions you need to take once you reach your destination.
Contaminated food and drink are the major sources of stomach or intestinal illness while traveling. Intestinal problems due to poor sanitation are found in far greater numbers outside the United States and other industrialized nations.
In areas with poor sanitation, only the following beverages may be safe to drink: boiled water, hot beverages (such as coffee or tea) made with boiled water, canned or bottled carbonated beverages, beer and wine. Ice may be made from unsafe water and should be avoided. It is safer to drink from a can or bottle of beverage than to drink from a container that was not known to be clean and dry. However, water on the surface of a beverage can or bottle may also be contaminated. Therefore, the area of a can or bottle that will touch the mouth should be wiped clean and dry. In areas where water is contaminated, travelers should not brush their teeth with tap water.
Boiling is the most reliable method to make water safe to drink. Bring water to a vigorous boil and then allow it to cool. Do not add ice. At high altitudes, allow water to boil vigorously for a few minutes or use chemical disinfectants. Adding a pinch of salt or pouring water from one container to another will improve the taste.
Chemical disinfection can be achieved with either iodine or chlorine, with iodine providing greater disinfection in a wider set of circumstances.
For disinfection with iodine, use either tincture of iodine or tetraglycine hydroperiodide tablets, such as Globaline and Potable-Aqua. These disinfectants can be found in sporting goods stores and pharmacies. Read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions. If the water is cloudy, then strain it through a clean cloth and double the number of disinfectant tablets added. If the water is very cold, either warm it or allow increased time for disinfectant to work.
The CDC makes no recommendation as to the use of any of the portable filters on the market due to lack of independently verified results of their efficacy.
As a last resort, water that is uncomfortably hot to the touch may be safe for drinking and brushing teeth after it is allowed to cool. However, many disease-causing organisms can survive the usual temperature reached by the hot water in overseas hotels.
Food should be selected with care. Any raw food could be contaminated, particularly in areas of poor sanitation. Foods of particular concern include salads, uncooked vegetables and fruit, unpasteurized milk and milk products, raw meat and shellfish. If you peel fruit yourself, it is generally safe. Food that has been cooked and is still hot is generally safe.
Infants younger than 6 months should either be breast-fed or be given powdered commercial formula prepared with boiled water.
Some fish is not guaranteed to be safe even when cooked because of the presence of toxins in their flesh. Tropical reef fish, red snapper, amber jack, grouper and sea bass can occasionally be toxic at unpredictable times if they are caught on tropical reefs rather than in open ocean. Barracuda and puffer fish are often toxic, and should generally not be eaten. Highest risk areas include the islands of the West Indies, the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans.
The typical symptoms of travelers’ diarrhea are diarrhea, nausea, bloating, urgency and malaise. TD usually lasts from three to seven days. It is rarely life-threatening. Areas of high risk include the developing countries of Africa, the Middle East and Central America. The risk of infection varies by type of eating establishment the traveler visits — from low-risk in private homes to high-risk for food from street vendors.
TD is slightly more common in young adults than in older people, with no difference between males and females. TD is usually acquired through ingestion of fecal contaminated food and water.
The best way to prevent TD is by paying meticulous attention to choice of food and beverage. CDC does not recommend use of antibiotics to prevent TD because they can cause additional problems.
For treatment, oral fluids should be administered to people with diarrhea. Fruit juices, soft drinks (preferably without caffeine) and salted crackers are advised. For severe dehydration, the use of an oral rehydration solution is advised. Avoid dairy products and all beverages that contain water of questionable quality.
Remember these suggestions and you’ll be well on your way to making great summer memories.
Ratcliffe is a consultant to the Coastal Health District. You can call her at 876-6399.